1. Surgical and Medical Specialties: A Journey in Pictures
2. Lymph Nodes—The Neglected Battlefield in Tuberculosis
3. Chronic Kidney Disease in the United States, 2021
4. Combatting Sepsis: A Public Health Perspective
5. Hypertension and Atrial Fibrillation: Closing a Virtuous Circle
6. Cardiovascular Events after Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Global Perspective with Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
7. Risk Factors for Recurrent Arterial Ischemic Stroke in Children and Young Adults
8. Cellular Mechanisms of Human Atherogenesis: Focus on Chronification of Inflammation and Mitochondrial Mutations
9. The Microbiota of the Human Gut and Cardiometabolic Health
10. Pharmaceutical Strategies for Reducing LDL-C and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease
11. Atherogenic Markers in Predicting Cardiovascular Risk and Targeting Residual Cardiovascular Risk
12. The Continuous Quest for More Effective and Safer Thromboprophylaxis Protocols
13. Wound Healing: Cellular Mechanisms and Pathological Outcomes
14. Advances in Cervical Cancer Prevention: Efficacy, Effectiveness, Elimination?
15. Molecular Classification of Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Cohort Study
16. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma: From Biology to Therapy
17. Brain and Testis: More Alike Than Previously Thought?
18. Myomatous Erythrocytosis Syndrome: A Case Series
19. Vascular Involvements in Cholangiocarcinoma: Tips and Tricks
20. Rehabilitation for People Living with Dementia: A Practical Framework of Positive Support
21. Are Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Parkinson’s Disease Dementia the Same Disease?
22. Regenerative Medicine: Could Parkinson’s Be the First Neurodegenerative Disease to Be Cured?
23. Changes in the Functional Brain Network of Children Undergoing Repeated Epilepsy Surgery: An EEG Source Connectivity Study
24. Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption in Atrial Fibrillation: A Potential Contributor to the Increased Risk of Dementia and Worsening of Stroke Outcomes
25. Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy: From Pathophysiology to Outcomes—Overview of an Emerging Medical Problem
26. Advances in Fractures and Dislocations of the Hip Joint
27. Predicting Scoliosis Progression: A Challenge for Researchers and Clinicians
28. Prosthetic and Mechanical Parameters of the Facial Bone under the Load of Different Dental Implant Shapes: A Parametric Study
29. Circulating Arsenic Is Associated with Long-Term Risk of Graft Failure in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Prospective Cohort Study
30. Successful Aging and Chronic Osteoarthritis
31. Radiographic Analysis on the Distortion of the Anatomy of First Metatarsal Head in Dorsoplantar Projection
32. Clinical Aspects and Current Therapeutic Approaches for Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva
33. Comparison and Lessons Learned from Neglected Tropical Diseases and Tuberculosis
34. Current Issues in Antibiotic Antimicrobial Resistance
35. Ending AIDS as a Public Health Threat by 2030: Time to Reset Targets for 2025
36. 9 Questions to Help Make Sense of Health Research
37. Transdisciplinary Research and Clinical Priorities for Better Health
38. Current Issues about Health News Stories
39. Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health: What’s in a Name?
40. Current Issues in Complementary and Integrative Health
41. Skin Conditions and Complementary Health Approaches: What the Science Says
42. Nutrition and Health across the Lifespan: Guidelines and Recommendations
43. Using Dietary Supplements Wisely
44. Association of Genetic Liability to Smoking Initiation with e-Cigarette Use in Young Adults: A Cohort Study
45. Current Issues in Vaccine Development
46. Cannabis Products Containing Delta-8 Tetrahydrocannabinol: Increased Availability and Reports of Adverse Events
47. Natural Doesn’t Necessarily Mean Safer, or Better
48. How Medications and Supplements Can Interact
49. Antioxidants: Current Issues and Future Trends
50. Hearing Loss and Hearing Aids: Current Issues
51. Bacterial Evolution during Human Infection: Adapt and Live or Adapt and Die
52. Roadblocks in Chagas Disease Care in Endemic and Nonendemic Countries: Argentina, Colombia, Spain, and the United States. The NET-Heart Project
53. Pathogens Infecting the Central Nervous System
54. Current Issues in Vaccines
55. What Are Embryonic Stem Cells and How Can They Help Us?
56. The Rise and Rise of Mitochondrial DNA Mutations
57. Hallmarks of Cancer—the New Testament
58. Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease
59. Viral Pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Male Reproductive Health
60. Elevated CO2 Modulates Airway Contractility
The pace and sophistication of advances in medicine in the past two decades have been truly breathtaking. This has necessitated a growing need for comprehensive references that highlight the current issues in specific sectors of medicine. Keeping this in mind, each volume in the Current Issues in Medicine series is a stand-alone text that provides a broad survey of various critical topics in a focused area of medicine—all accomplished in a user-friendly yet interconnected format. However, unlike other series on medicine or medical texts, this series focuses on current trends, perspectives, and issues in medicine that are central to healthcare delivery in the 21st century. Medical practitioners today continue to improve upon techniques and technologies to provide procedures for patients that are safer, faster, less invasive, and more accurate —a direct consequence of advances in technological breakthroughs from a variety of medical and engineering fields. In order to render modern patient care, it is imperative that surgeons and medical practitioners stay current with these latest advances in their respective specialties. Given this backdrop, the specific topics covered in this volume and the expertise of the contributing authors accurately reflect the rapidly evolving areas within surgical and medical specialties. While recognising how expansive and multifaceted medicine is, Advances in Surgical and Medical Specialties addresses crucial recent advances in surgical and medical specialties, intergrating the knowledge and experience of experts from academia and practicing surgeons. The multidisciplinary approach reflected here makes this volume a valuable reference resource for medical practictioners, medical students, nurses, fellows, residents, undergraduate and graduate students, educators, venture capitalists, policymakers, and biomedical researchers. A wide audience will benefit from having this volume on their bookshelf: health care systems, the pharmaceutical industry, academia, and government.
Raj Bawa, PhD, MD, is president of Bawa Biotech LLC (founded in 2002), a biotech/pharma consultancy and patent law firm based in Ashburn, Virginia, USA. Trained as a microbiologist and biochemist, he is an inventor, author, entrepreneur, professor, and registered patent agent (since 2002) licensed to practice before the US Patent & Trademark Office. He is currently a scientific advisor to Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Israel (since 2010), and full professor (adjunct) at Northern Virginia Community College, Annandale, Virginia (since 2004). He is vice president and chief IP officer at Guanine, Inc., Rensselaer, New York (since 2017), a company focused on rapid, accurate detection of infective pathogens. He has served as a principal investigator of various National Cancer Institute (NCI) research grants; most recently as a principal investigator of a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) grant to develop an assay for Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing bacteria. He was an adjunct professor at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, from 1998 to 2018. After earning a BSc (Honors School) in microbiology, he earned an MS in cancer biology, a PhD in biophysics/biochemistry, and an MD. In the 1990s, Dr. Bawa held various positions at the US Patent & Trademark Office, including primary examiner from 1996–2002. Currently, he is a life member of Sigma Xi, cochair of the nanotech and precision medicine committees of the American Bar Association, and founding director of the American Society for Nanomedicine (established in 2008). He has authored over 100 publications, edited 10 texts, and serves on the editorial boards of numerous peer-reviewed journals, including serving as an associate editor of Nanomedicine (Elsevier).