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• Part 1: Fundamentals of the Spine
1. History of Spine Surgery
2. History of Spine Biomechanics
3. History of Spinal Instrumentation: The Modern Era
4. Functional Anatomy of the Spine
5. Biomechanical Modeling of the Spine
6. The Intervertebral Disc: Anatomy, Pathophysiology, and Aging
7. Muscles and the Spine: Dynamic Stabilization
8. Bone Physiology and Osteoporosis
9. Applied Anatomy of the Thoracolumbar Spine
10. Fundamentals of Spinal Alignment and Balance
11. Applied Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
12. Molecular and Anatomic Mechanisms of Nerve Root, Spinal Nerve, and Peripheral Nerve Injury
13. Spine Fusion: Biology and Biomechanics
14. Implant Attributes: Cantilever Beam Fixation
15. Biomechanics and Implant Materials: The Anterior Column
16. Biomechanics of Motion Preservation Techniques
17. Complications in Spine Surgery: Expected Rates and Classification
• Part 2: Pathophysiology of Spinal Disorders
Section 2.1: Pathophysiology of Congenital and Developmental Disorders
18. Spinal Cord Dysraphism and Myelodysplasia
19. Congenital Spinal Deformity
20. Early Onset Scoliosis
21. Late-Onset Idiopathic Scoliosis
22. Scheuermann Disease
23. Developmental Spondylolisthesis
24. Craniovertebral Junction Deformities
25. Developmental Deformity in the Cervical Spine
26. Tarlov Cysts
27. Dural and Meningeal Pathologies
28. Chiari Malformations and Syringomyelia
Section 2.2: Pathophysiology of Degenerative Disorders
29. Pathophysiology of Cervical Spondylosis, Radiculopathy, and Myelopathy
30. Pathophysiology of Thoracic Spondylosis, Radiculopathy, and Myelopathy
31. Pathophysiology of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration and Pain
32. Deformity in the Cervical Spine
33. Adult Degenerative Scoliosis
34. Lumbar Spondylolisthesis
Section 2.3: Pathophysiology of Traumatic Disorders
35. Occipitocervical Injuries
36. Subaxial Cervical Spine Injuries
37. Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Injuries
38. Peripheral Nerve Injury
39. Spinal Cord Injury
40. Spinal Injuries in Sports
Section 2.4: Pathophysiology of Inflammatory and Infectious Disorders
41. Rheumatoid Arthritis
42. Ankylosing Spondylitis and Related Disorders
43. Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament
44. Primary Infections of the Spine
45. Secondary Infections of the Spine
46. Primary Tumors of the Spine
47. Metastatic Tumors of the Spine
48. Intradural Extramedullary Spine Tumors
49. Intramedullary Spinal Cord Lesions
50. Brachial Plexus Tumors Extending into the Cervicothoracic Spine
Section 2.6: Pathophysiology of Syndromic Disorders Affecting the Spine: Connective Tissue and Vascular
51. Spinal Disorders Associated with Connective Tissue Disorders
52. Osteoporosis, Osteomalacia, and Metabolic Bone Disease
53. Vascular Malformations of the Spine
54. Neuromuscular Disorders in the Pediatric Spine
55. Neurodegenerative Disorders in the Adult Spine
Section 2.7: Pathophysiology of Postoperative Spinal Disorders
56. Postoperative Spinal Disorders - Cervical
57. Postoperative Spinal Deformity
58. Adjacent Segment Degeneration and Disease of the Cervical Spine
59. Adjacent Segment Degeneration and Disease of the Lumbar Spine
60. Proximal and Distal Junctional Kyphosis and Failure
• Part 3: Evaluation of Patients with Spinal Disorders
61. Physical and Neurologic Examination
62. Sagittal Spinal Alignment: An Evolutionary Perspective
63. Spinal Alignment: Significance and Preoperative Planning
64. Overview of Imaging Procedures Available for Spinal Diagnosis
65. Electrodiagnostic Studies
66. Differential Diagnosis of Surgical Disorders of the Spine
67. Patient Selection for Spine Surgery: Preoperative Optimization
68. Evaluation of the Aging Patient
69. Preoperative Evaluation of Psychosocial Aspects and Work-related Issues
70. Preoperative Evaluation of Patients with Tumors Affecting the Spine
71. Measuring Preoperative Health-Related Quality of Life: What Metrics Matter
• Part 4: Management of Spinal Disorders
Section 4.1: Nonoperative Approaches
72. Rehabilitation, Interventions, and Medications in Management of Spinal Disorders
73. Spine Injections
74. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Back Pain
75. Regenerative Strategies and the Intervertebral Disc Degeneration
76. Neuromodulation and Rehabilitative Interventions for the Spine
77. Pain Management: Opioids and Alternatives
Section 4.2: Operative Management of Spinal Disorders: Overview and Principles
78. Fundamentals of Spine Surgery
79. Perioperative Management Protocols: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS)
80. Surgical Incisions, Positioning, and Retraction
81. Intraoperative Imaging Protocols
82. Anesthesia for Spine Surgery and the Prevention of Complications
83. Intraoperative Monitoring in Routine and Complex Surgery
84. Blood Management and Complex Spine Surgery
85. Intraoperative Crisis Management in Spine Surgery: What to Do When Things Go Bad
86. Biologics in Spine Fusion Surgery
87. Osteointegration: The Bone and Implant Interface
88. Common Complications in Spine Surgery: Pseudarthrosis
89. Postoperative Medical Complications
90. Preventing Postoperative Infections: An Evidence-Based Approach
91. Neurologic Complications of Common Spine Operations
92. Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak: Repair and Outcomes
93. Arachnoiditis
94. Arachnoiditis and Syringomyelia
95. Posttraumatic and Idiopathic Syringomyelia
96. Vascular and Soft Tissue Complications
97. Postoperative Spinal Deformities
98. Implant Wear, Degradation, and Breakage
99. Spine Readmissions and Reoperations
Section 4.3: Operative Management of Spinal Disoders: Occipital and Cervical
100. Cervical Spine Construct Design
101. Occipitocervical Spine Approaches for Decompression
102. Occipitocervical Spine Posterior Approaches for Fusion
103. Endoscopic and Transnasal Approaches to the Craniocervical Junction
104. Cervical Spine and Cervicothoracic Junction - Posterior
105. Posterior Cervical Decompressions: Cervical Laminectomy and Laminoforaminotomy
106. Cervical Laminoplasty
107. Dorsal Subaxial Cervical Instrumentation Techniques
108. Posterior Percutaneous and Minimally Invasive Approaches to Decompression and Arthrodesis of the Cervical Spine
109. Cervical Spine and Cervicothoracic Junction - Anterior Approach
110. Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Corpectomy
111. Management of Soft Cervical Disc Herniation: Controversies and Complication Avoidance
112. Anterior Sub-Axial Cervical Fixation and Fusion Techniques
113. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty
114. Combined Ventral-Dorsal Surgery
Section 4.4: Operative Management of Spinal Disorders: Thoracolumbar
115. Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Construct Design
116. Posterior Approaches to the Thoracic Spine
117. Anterior Approaches and Lateral Approaches to the Thoracic Spine
118. MIS Lateral Thoracic Decompression
119. Thoracoscopic Corpectomy and Reconstruction
120. Posterolateral Thoracolumbar Fusion
121. Posterior Thoracic and Lumbar Universal Spinal Instrumentation
122. Midline Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Cortical Bone Trajectory Pedicle Screw Placement
123. Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion
124. Dorsal Semi-Rigid Stabilization
125. Lumbar Total Disc Arthroplasty
126. Minimally Invasive Spinal Decompression and Stabilization Techniques I: Philosophy and Rationale
127. Posterior Approaches to the Lumbar Spine: Minimally Invasive Decompression
128. Endoscopic Approaches to the Cervical Spine
129. Endoscopic Surgical Approaches to the Lumbar Spine
130. Posterior Approaches to the Lumbar Spine: Minimally Invasive Fusion
131. Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion
132. Anterior and Anterolateral Lumbar Spine Decompression and Fusion: MIS Approaches
133. Complex Lumbosacropelvic Fixation Techniques
134. Spinal Augmentation for Vertebral Compression Fractures
• Part 5: Operative Management of Specific Disorders of the Spine
Section 5.1: Degenerative Pathologies
135. Indications for Spine Fusion for Axial Pain
136. Cervical Disc Herniation
137. Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Herniation
138. Thoracic Discectomy
139. Degenerative Spondylolisthesis
140. Sacroiliac Joint Pain
Section 5.2: Spinal Deformity
141. Surgical Principles for Spinal Deformity
142. An Approach for Treatment of Complex Adult Spinal Deformity
143. An Approach for Treatment of Complex Pediatric Spinal Deformity
144. Cervicothoracic Deformity: The Role of Anterior Surgery
145. Cervical and Cervicothoracic Deformity Correction: Posterior-based Osteotomies
146. The Role of Anterior Surgery for Thoracolumbar Deformity
147. Anterior Column Release in Deformity
148. Posterior-based Management of Spinal Deformity
149. Minimally Invasive Approaches to Spinal Deformity
150. Surgical Management of High-Grade Dysplastic Spondylolisthesis
151. Deformity Surgery for Ankylosing Spondylitis
152. Failed Back Surgery Syndrome
Section 5.3: Tumors of the Spine
153. Oncologic Approaches, and Outcomes for Primary Spine Tumors
154. Staging, Classification, and Oncologic Approaches for Metastatic Tumors Involving the Spine
155. Tumors at the Foramen Magnum and Craniocervical Junction
156. Cervicothoracic Junction Tumors
157. Thoracic and Thoracolumbar Spinal Tumors: Regional Challenges
158. Sacral Tumors: Regional Challenges
159. Radiosurgery for Spinal Tumors
Section 5.4: Trauma and the Spine
160. The Acute Management of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury and Polytrauma
161. Timing of Surgery Following Spinal Cord Injury
162. Medical Management of Adult and Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury
163. Spinal Traction
164. Medical Management of Fractures without Spinal Cord Injury
165. Anterior Surgery for Cervical Trauma
166. Posterior Surgery for Cervical Trauma
167. Surgical Approaches to Thoracolumbar Trauma
168. Surgical Approaches for Sacral Fractures and Sacropelvic Injuries
169. Rehabilitation and Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury
Section 5.5: General Surgical Technique
170. Harvest of Autograft for Spinal Fusion
171. Vascularized Bone Grafts in Spine Surgery
172. Spinal Wound Closure
• Part 6: Evidence Development and Guidance of Informed Choice for Optimal Outcomes
173. Big Data in Health Care
174. Spine Registries
175. Conflicts of Interest in Spine Surgery
176. Art of the Clinical Trial
177. Meaningful Retrospective Analysis
178. Art and Science of Guideline Formation
179. Appropriate Use Criteria in Spine Surgery
180. Precision Medicine: Artificial Intelligence Applied to Evaluation and Management of Spinal Disorders
181. Healthcare Reform and Spine Surgery
182. Development of New Technologies in Spine Surgery

Written and edited by world-renowned experts in the field, Benzel’s Spine Surgery: Techniques, Complication Avoidance and Management, 5th Edition, provides expert, step-by-step guidance on the evaluation and management of disorders of the spine. This definitive, two-volume work explores the full spectrum of techniques used in spine surgery, giving you the tools you need to hone your skills and increase your knowledge in this challenging area. Clearly organized and extensively revised throughout, it features contributions from both neurosurgeons and orthopaedic surgeons to present a truly comprehensive approach to spine disease.

• Michael P Steinmetz, MD, Professor, Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine, Co-Director, Center for Spine Health, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
• Sigurd H. Berven and Edward C. Benzel, MD, Chairman, Department of Neurosurgery, Center for Spine Health, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA