1. Female genital cosmetic surgery: solution in pursuit of problem Lih-Mei Liao and Sarah M. Creighton
2. Female genital anatomy Naomi S. Crouch
3. Selling a perfect vulva? Selling a 'normal' vulva! Virginia Braun
4. The history of female genital cosmetic surgery in the United States: from marginal to mainstream Sarah B. Rodriguez
5. Techniques of female genital cosmetic surgery (FGCS) Angelica Kavouni and Sarah M. Creighton
6. Clinical evidence of the effects of female genital cosmetic surgery Lina Michala
7. The law and ethics of female genital cutting Arianne Shahvisi and Brian D. Earp
8. Choice and female genital cosmetic surgery Clare Chambers
9. A historical analysis of beliefs supporting female genital cosmetic surgery Hera Cook
10. Feminist activism to challenge the new surgical industry of female genital cosmetic surgery Leonore Tiefer
11. Can better sex education tackle the rise in female genital cosmetic surgery? Tove Lundberg
12. FGCS and the role of the general practicioner Magdalena Simonis
13. Female genital cosmetic surgery: psychological aspects and approaches Lori A. Brotto, Maggie Bryce and Nicole Todd
14. Addressing female genital dissatisfaction and distress: the role of nurses and midwives Yana Richens and Louise Williams
Appendix 1: resources Jennifer Beale
An analysis of the cultural and economic drivers of the growing phenomenon of FGCS, written by cross-disciplinary experts, this book challenges the concept of individual consumer choice in FGCS: a decision that is rarely exercised in a socio-cultural vacuum. Four distinct aspects of FGCS are covered: variations in female genital anatomy; surgical techniques and evidence; historical contexts and ethical dilemmas; norm-critical understandings to inform professional responses. Rendering philosophical critiques accessible, and exposing dubious social values that underpin the practice, this text is crucial in driving a broader understanding of FGCS as a cultural phenomenon of our times. Only with a fuller understanding of the multiple perspectives of FGCS, can there be sensible alternatives for women and girls psychologically troubled by their natural, healthy form. Offering explanations and interventions at individual, institutional and societal levels, this text will be valued by both professional and non-professional audiences.
• Includes evidence-based descriptions of genital anatomy and cosmetic surgical techniques that place female genital cosmetic surgery (FGCS) in cultural contexts
• Provides a historical context for FGCS and outline the ethical dilemmas, to assist readers in understanding why the current phenomenon has arisen
• Translates norm-critical understandings into a wider range of professional responses to FGCS, supporting clinical professionals managing women with physical and mental health concerns related to their genitalia
• Written by leading experts, this text avoids over-medicalised jargon to provide support for both interested readers and healthcare professionals
• Sarah M. Creighton, University College London Hospital
Sarah M. Creighton is a consultant gynaecologist and honorary clinical professor at University College Hospital London (UCHL). She specialises in paediatric and adolescent gynaecology and is a member of the UCHL multidisciplinary service for Intersex/ Diverse Sex Development. She is a founder member and past Chair of the British Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Gynaecology (BritSPAG). She has published widely on genital surgery in girls and women including the phenomenon of cosmetic genital surgery.
• Lih-Mei Liao, University College London Hospital
Lih-Mei Liao is an honorary reader at University College London and consultant clinical psychologist at University College Hospital London. She has helped to steer UK's care provision for people born with medically benign genital differences towards a multi-disciplinary model. As a co-founder of the European Network for the Psychosocial Studies of Intersex/Diverse Sex Development, and Critical Sexology Seminar, she has built bridges between interested parties, dialogue between whom is needed to realise ethically and psychosocially informed approaches to address genital differences. This work has led her to critique socially motivated genital surgery more broadly.