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• Part I Imaging Radiology
1 Principles of X-ray Production and Radiation Protection . 3
Paul M. Taylor
2 How to Perform a Clinical Radiograph and Use a C-arm . 9
Paul M. Taylor
3 Contrast Agents 13
Anas Hattab
4 Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) 19
Nicholas Faure Walker and Richard Whitehouse
5 The Physics of Ultrasound and Doppler 25
Paul M. Taylor
6 How to Ultrasound a Suspected Renal Mass 31
Allen Ikwuagwu
7 How to Ultrasound a Painful Testicle and Mass 39
Allen Ikwuagwu
8 How to Do a Trans-Perineal Ultrasound Guided Biopsy of the
Prostate 47
Omar El-Taji, Samih Taktak, and John McCabe
9 How to Manage an Infected Obstructed Kidney . 55
Louise E. Olson
10 Principles of Computed Tomography (CT) . 59
Richard Hawkins
11 How to Do a CT Urogram (CT) . 65
12 How to Do a Renal and Adrenal CT . 71
Varun Misra and Ryan Pathak
13 How to Do a CT in a Patient with Presumed Upper Tract Trauma 77
Anas Hattab and Jonathan Smith
14 Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) . 83
Richard Hawkins
15 Safety in MR Scanning 89
Suzanne Phenna
16 Urological Applications of MRI Scanning 95
Varun Misra and Ryan Pathak
17 Vascular Embolisation Techniques in Urology . 103
Symeon Lechareas
• Part II Imaging Nuclear Medicine
18 Radionuclides and Their Uses in Urology . 113
Matthew Memmott and Richard Lawson
19 Counting and Imaging in Nuclear Medicine 117
Christopher Mathews-Aspinall and Richard Lawson
20 Principles of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scanning . 121
Phei Shan Chuah and Seshadri Nagabhushan
21 PET-CT Imaging in Prostate Cancer 127
Seshadri Nagabhushan and Phei Shan Chuah
22 Understanding the Renogram: How It’s Done and How to
Interpret It 133
Rakesh Sajjan and Mary Prescott
23 The Diuresis Renogram: How It’s Done and How to Interpret It . 139
Rakesh Sajjan and Mary Prescott
24 Understanding the DMSA Scan: How It’s Done and How to
Interpret It 143
Rakesh Sajjan and Mary Prescott
25 How to Do a Radioisotope Glomerular Filtration Rate Study 147
Sarah Sargant and Richard Lawson
26 Understanding the Radionuclide Bone Scan: How It’s Done and How To
Interpret It 153
Rakesh Sajjan and Mary Prescott
27 Renography of the Transplanted Kidney: How It’s Done and How to
Interpret It 159
28 Dynamic Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Penile Cancer 165
Ben Ayres and Nick Watkin
• Part III Technology Diagnostic Technology
29 Urinalysis . 171
David G. Ross
30 Principles of Urine Microscopy and Microbiological Culture 177
Ffon E. Carlin and Cecilia M. Jukka
31 Urinary Flow Cytometry 183
Harry Rudman and Dora Moon
32 Urine Cytology 187
Nadira Narine and Durgesh N. Rana
33 Histopathological Processing, Staining and Immuno-Histochemistry 193
Tegan Miller
34 Tumour Markers . 197
Alex Hoyle
35 Measurement of Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) 205
Stephen Brown
36 Assessment of Urinary Tract Stones . 209
Robert C. Calvert
37 Principles of Pressure Measurement . 215
Ian Pearce
38 Principles of Measurement of Urinary Flow 219
Timothy Napier-Hemy and Richard Napier-Hemy
39 How to Carry Out a Video Cystometrogram (VCMG) in an Adult 223
Magda Kujawa
40 Sphincter Electromyography (EMG) 229
Emma L. Foster, Katherine E. Burnett, and Christopher D. Betts
• Part IV Technology Operative
41 Operating Theatre Safety 237
Steve Payne
42 Principles of Decontamination 241
Sotonye K. Tolofari
43 Patient Safety in the Operating Theatre Environment 247
Steve Payne
44 Venous Thromboembolic Prevention 253
Christian Longley
45 Anticoagulants and Their Reversal 261
Gidon Ellis
46 Haemostatic Agents, Tissue Sealants and Adhesives 267
Omer Abdalla and Suresh Venugopal
47 Transfusion in Urology 271
Craig Carroll, Jayne Peters, and Harriet Lucero
48 Cell Salvage in Urological Surgery 277
Craig Carroll, Jayne Peters, and Harriet Lucero
49 Principles of Urological Endoscopes . 283
Hari L. Ratan
50 Rigid Endoscope Design . 287
James Broome
51 Light Sources, Light Leads and Camera Systems 291
Hari L. Ratan
52 Peripherals for Endoscopic Use . 295
Steve Payne
53 Peripherals for Laparoscopic Use . 301
Dora Moon
54 Peripherals for Mechanical Stone Manipulation . 305
Ciaran Lynch
55 Sutures and Clips 311
Bachar Zelhof
56 Contact Lithotripters . 319
Tom Brophy and Steve Payne
57 Monopolar Diathermy 325
Luke Forster
58 Bipolar Diathermy . 329
Luke Forster
59 Alternatives to Electrosurgery 333
Bachar Zelhof
60 Operative Tissue Destruction . 337
Matthew Liew
61 Endoscopic Use of Laser Energy 341
Tev Aho and Omar Al Kadhi
62 Double J Stents and Nephrostomy 349
Tom Brophy and Steve Payne
63 Urinary Catheters, Design and Usage 355
Benjamin Starmer
64 Urological Prosthetics . 361
Ian Eardley
65 Mesh in Urological Surgery 367
Niyukta Thakare and Chris Harding
66 Irrigation Fluids and Their Hazards . 373
Matthew Liew
67 Insufflants and Their Hazards 377
Yuhao Zhang and Stephen Bromage
68 Laparoscopic Ports . 383
Euan Green
69 Principles of Robotic Surgery 387
Robin Weston
70 Setting Up Robotic Surgery 393
Robin Weston
71 Principles of Tissue Transfer for Urologists . 397
Patrick Gordon, Wai Gin Lee, and David Ralph
• Part V Technology Interventional
72 Neuromodulation by Sacral Nerve Stimulation 405
Katherine E. Burnett, Christopher D. Betts, and Emma L. Foster
73 Principles of Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy (ESWL) . 409
Robert C. Calvert
74 How to Carry Out Shockwave Lithotripsy (SWL) . 415
Robert C. Calvert
75 Novel Technologies for BPH 419
Craig Jones
76 Ablative Therapies . 427
Nikhil Mayor and Taimur T. Shah
77 Principles of Radiotherapy . 433
Martin Swinton and Andrew Hudson
78 Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer . 439
Mariam Obeid and Maria Serra
79 Augmented Intravesical Drug Administration . 447
Benjamin Starmer and Henry Lazarowicz
• Part VI Technology of Renal Failure
80 Principles of Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) 455
Mumtaz Patel
81 Principles of Peritoneal Dialysis 459
Dimitrios Poulikakos and David Lewis
82 Haemodialysis . 465
Mumtaz Patel
83 Principles of Renal Transplantation . 469
David Van Dellen and Jennifer Kingston
• Part VII Assessment of Technology
84 Key Concepts in the Design of Randomised Controlled Trials 477
Kieran J. O’Flynn
85 Reporting and Interpreting Data from RCTs . 483
Kieran J. O’Flynn
86 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) . 489
Luke Vale, Diarmuid Coughlan, and Michael Drinnan
Appendices 493

This book offers a new edition of the hugely successful title, Imaging & Technology in Urology--Principles and Clinical Applications edited by Steve Payne, Ian Eardley, Kieran O'Flynn in 2012. Essential reading for preparation of exit exams in Urology, it is used worldwide by exam candidates. Fully updated in essential areas of the book following on from recent developments in the last decade, it helps give preparation to candidates.
The most comprehensive and reliable source of information on this particular topic.

• Relevant to Urology doctors undertaking their exit examinations
• Provides essential updates of new developments in technology in the last decade
• A comprehensive and reliable source of information on this topic