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• Section I. Mechanisms of MS Disease Causation and Intervention
o Chapter 1. Epigenetic Changes in DNA Methylation and Environment in Multiple Sclerosis
? Introduction
? Risk Factors in MS and Epigenetic Changes
? DNA Methylation in MS
? Conclusions
o Chapter 2. EBV Infection and Vitamin D in Multiple Sclerosis Patients
? Multiple Sclerosis and Environmental Factors
? MS and Infections
? MS and EBV Infection
? Potential Mechanisms Underlying EBV Infection in MS
? MS and Vitamin D Status
? Mechanisms Underlying Vitamin D in MS
? Joint Effects of EBV Infection and Vitamin D Status in MS
? Conclusion
o Chapter 3. White Matter Abnormalities in MS: Advances in Diffusion Tensor Imaging/Tractography
? A Brief Overview of the Neuropathology of Multiple Sclerosis
? Neuroimaging in MS
? Conclusions
o Chapter 4. Palmitoylethanolamid and Other Lipid Autacoids Against Neuroinflammation, Pain, and Spasms in Multiple Sclerosis
? Introduction
? Pathogenesis of MS: Disturbance of the Inflammatory Balance
? Inhibition of Neuroinflammation by “Following Where Nature Leads”
? Lipid Autacoids of ALIAmides: Natures Break on Pathological Inflammation
? Lipid Autacoids in Central Neuroinflammation
? Palmitoylethanolamide As a Neurorestorative and Neuroprotective Compound
? Palmitoylethanolamide in MS
? Recommendations Based on Clinical Experience
? Conclusion
o Chapter 5. Gateway Reflexes Are Stimulated by Neural Activations and Promote the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis Models
? Introduction
? Blood–Brain Barrier and Th17 Cells
? Inflammation in the CNS and the Gateway for Immune Cells
? Gravity-Mediated Neural Activation Creates a Gateway for Immune Cells in the L5 Cord
? Electric Stimulation-Mediated Gateway Reflex
? Pain-Mediated Gateway Reflex
? Other Neuroimmune Reflexes
? Future Directions
o Chapter 6. Multiple Sclerosis: Food and Lifestyle in a Neurological Autoimmune Disease
? Introduction
? Food and MS (Diet in General)
? Omega-3 Fatty Acids
? Salt
? Vitamin D
? Lifestyle in General
? Nutrition and Obesity
? Smoking
? Physical Activity and Fatigue
? Alcohol
? Coffee
? Cannabinoids (Cs)
? Acupuncture
? Conclusion
o Chapter 7. Narrative and the Multiple Sclerosis Body
? Experience Denied and the Disappearance of the Body
? Imago
? Mast Fruiting and Co-Becoming
• Section II. Vitamins and Minerals in Multiple Sclerosis Causation and Therapy
o Chapter 8. Risk Factors for Low Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Sclerosis
? Introduction
? Demographic and Lifestyle Variables
? Reduced Mobility
? Hypovitaminosis D
? Medications
? Direct Effect of the Disease Course
o Chapter 9. Role of Vitamin D in Multiple Sclerosis Pathogenesis and Therapy
? Introduction
? Metabolism of Vitamin D
? Immunological Functions of Vitamin D and Effects on Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
? Vitamin D and Multiple Sclerosis
? Possible Therapeutic Applications of Vitamin D for Multiple Sclerosis
? Conclusions
o Chapter 10. Multiple Sclerosis in Women: Vitamin D and Estrogen Synergy for Autoimmune T-Cell Regulation and Demyelinating Disease Prevention
? Introduction
? Genes, Environment, and Autoimmune T Lymphocytes in MS
? Sex-Based Differences in MS and the Role of Estrogen
? Rising Female MS Incidence
? Nongenetic Exposures in Female MS Risk
? Vitamin D and Estrogen Synergy in T-Cell Self-Tolerance
? Hypotheses for Rising Female MS Incidence
? Reversing the Rising Trend in Female MS Incidence
? Conclusions and Research Questions
? Abbreviations
o Chapter 11. Dietary Sodium in Multiple Sclerosis
? Introduction
? Evidence From Animal Models of MS
? Evidence From Human Studies
? Dietary Sodium: A Risk Factor for Incidence or Severity of MS?
? Perspectives and Conclusions
• Section III. Behavioral Management of Associated Conditions in Multiple Sclerosis
o Chapter 12. Developing and Applying the Theory of Psychological Adaptation Needs in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis
? Introduction
? Methods
? Results
? Conceptual Analysis of the Theory of Psychological Adaptation Needs
? Discussion
? Conclusion
o Chapter 13. Assessment, Consequence, and Clinical Implication of Asymmetry
? Introduction
? Secondary Complications: Injury and Health Care Costs
? Clinical Assessment for Asymmetry
• Section IV. Environmental Factors and Exercise In Prevention and Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis
o Chapter 14. Neuromuscular Taping and Multiple Sclerosis: Reality or Trend?
o Chapter 15. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: When Efficacious Motor Therapy Meets Progressive Disease
? Multiple Sclerosis: A Progressive Disease That Is Responsive to Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy
? Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy
? CI Therapy in MS
o Chapter 16. Physical Activity Behavior in Multiple Sclerosis: Definition, Rates, Outcomes, and Safety
? Definition of Physical Activity
? Rates of Physical Activity in MS
? Physical Activity as a Protective Lifestyle Behavior
? Physical Activity as a Restorative Lifestyle Behavior
? Safety of Physical Activity in MS
? Conclusion
o Chapter 17. Looking Beyond Neurological Impairment in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis During Exercise Intervention: Evidence for Muscular, Cardiac, Pulmonary, and Metabolic Dysfunction Related to Exercise Intolerance and Prognosis
? Introduction
? Muscle Dysfunction in MS
? Pulmonary Dysfunction in MS
? Cardiac Dysfunction in MS
? Metabolic Dysfunction in MS
? Are the Observed Muscular, Pulmonary, Cardiac, and Metabolic Abnormalities (During Exercise) Simply Due to Physical Inactivity in MS?
? Conclusion
o Chapter 18. Exercise in the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis: Pragmatic Exercise Intervention in People With Mild to Moderate Multiple Sclerosis—The ExIMS Project
? Exercise in the Management of Multiple Sclerosis
? Definitions of Terms
? Exercise Interventions in Multiple Sclerosis Trial
? Feasibility Trial
? Main Trial
? Implications for Practice
? Directions of Future Research
? Conclusion
o Chapter 19. Yoga and Pilates as Methods of Symptom Management in Multiple Sclerosis
? Background
? The Pilates Method and Yoga
? Pain and QoL
? Mental Health and Fatigue
? Mobility, Spasticity, Balance, and Strength
? Bladder Control and Sexual Function
? Conclusion
o Chapter 20. Exercise in Prevention and Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis
? Physical Exercise
? Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in People With MS
o Chapter 21. Physical Activity and Health Promotion for People With Multiple Sclerosis: Implementing Activities in the Community
? Inclusion of Disability in Public Health Practice
? Health Promotion and Physical Activity Programs for Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis
? Conclusion
o Chapter 22. Interdisciplinary Treatment of Patients With Multiple Sclerosis and Chronic Pain
? Pain and Multiple Sclerosis
? Psychological Aspects of Pain
? An Interdisciplinary Treatment Approach for Pain and Multiple Sclerosis
? Summary and Conclusions
• Section V. Drugs of Abuse, Alcohol and Tobacco, and Disease of Multiple Sclerosis Patients
o Chapter 23. Alcohol and Tobacco in Multiple Sclerosis
? Introduction
? Method
? Results
? Tobacco
? Discussion and Conclusion
o Chapter 24. Herbal Oil Supplement With Hot-Nature Diet for Multiple Sclerosis
? Overview
? Role of Lipids in MS
? Hempseed and Evening Primrose With Hot-Nature Diet for MS
? Future Directions
? Abbreviations
• Section VI. Foods in Multiple Sclerosis
o Chapter 25. The Role of Natural Products in the Prevention and Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis
? Introduction
? Achillea millefolium
? Andrographolide
? Apigenin
? Bee Venom
? Berberine
? ß-Elemene
? Blueberries
? Castanospermine
? Chrysin and Caffeic Acid
? Curcumin
? Epigallocatechin-3-gallate
? Erhuangfang
? Genistein
? Ginger
? Hesperidin
? Huperzine A
? Hypericum perforatum
? Lipoic Acid
? Luteolin
? Matrine
? N-Acetylglucosamine
? Nigella sativa
? Oleanolic Acid, Erythrodiol, and Celastrol
? Panax ginseng and Ginsan
? Probiotics
? Resveratrol
? Sesame Oil
? Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F
? Vindeburnol
? White Grape Juice
o Chapter 26. Effects of B Vitamins in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis
? The B Vitamins
? Physiology of Vitamin B12
? Neurological Problems Associated With Vitamin B12
? Vitamin B12 Metabolism
? Diagnosis of Low Vitamin B12
? Immunoregulatory Effects of Vitamin B12
? Role of Oxidative Stress in Neurodegeneration
? Age Prominence
? Venerability to Vitamin B12 Deficiency/Daily Requirements
? Clinical Trials Involving Vitamin B12 Therapy
? Conclusion
o Chapter 27. Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Myelinogenesis: Prospective in Multiple Sclerosis Treatment
? Introduction
? n-3 Fatty Acids
? Mechanisms of Action
? n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Myelin
? Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Remyelination
? n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Multiple Sclerosis
? Conclusions
o Chapter 28. Biomarkers of Multiple Sclerosis and Their Modulation by Natural Products
? Introduction
? Role of Natural Products in the Modulation of Multiple Sclerosis
? Summary
? Abbreviations

• Presents a comprehensive overview that details the role of nutrition and exercise in Multiple Sclerosis
• Written for researchers and clinicians in neurology, neuroscience, and exercise and nutrition
• Defines a new approach that focuses on foods, dietary supplements, exercise, behavior, and lifestyle in health promotion and symptoms management for MS

• Ronald Ross Watson, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.
• William D. S. Killgore, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA