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Medicina Interna
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• Section 1 - Patients and their treatment
1.1: An older patient's story, Timothy M. Cox
1.2: A younger patient's experience of healthcare
1.3: The patient in control, Rosamund Snow
1.4: What do patients need?, Des Spence
1.5: Medical ethics, Mike Parker, Suleman Mehrunisha
1.6: Principles of clinical decision making, Tim Peto, Philippa Peto
• Section 2 - Background to medicine
2.1: Science in medicine: when, how, and what, William F. Bynum
2.2: Evolutionary medicine, Nesse Randolph
2.3: The global burden of disease, Vos Theo, Alan Lopez, and Christopher Murray
2.4: Large-scale randomized evidence: trials and meta-analyses of trials, Colin Baigent, R. Collins, R. Peto, R. Gray, and S. Parish
2.5: Bioinformatics, Afzal Chaudhry
2.6: Clinical Pharmacology, Kevin O'Shaughnessy
2.7: Biological Therapies in rheumatic diseases, John Isaacs, Nishanthi Thalayasingam
2.8: Traditional Medicine exemplified by Traditional Chinese Medicine, Youyou Tu, Fulong Liao, and Jiang Tingliang
2.9: Engaging patients in therapeutic development, Emil Kakkis, Max Bronstein
2.10: Medicine quality, physicians and patients, Paul Newton
2.11: Preventive medicine, David Mant
2.12: Medical screening, Nick Wald
2.13: Health promotion, Evelyne de Leeuw
2.14: Deprivation and health, Harry Burns
2.15: How much should rich country governments spend on healthcare?, Allyson M. Pollock and David Price
2.16: Financing healthcare in low- income developing countries: A challenge for equity in health, Luis G. Sambo, Jorge Simões, and Maria do Rosario O. Martins
2.17: Research in the developed world, Jeremy Farrar
2.18: Fostering medical and health research in resource-constrained countries, Malegapuru (William) Makgoba, Steve Tollman
2.19: Regulation versus innovation in medicine, Michael Rawlins
2.20: Human disasters, Amartya Sen
2.21: Humanitarian medicine, Amy Kravitz
2.22: Complementary and Alternative medicine, Edzard Ernst
• Section 3 - Cell biology
3.1: The cell, George Banting, Paul Luzio
3.2: The genomic basis of medicine, James Lupski, Pawel Stankiewicz
3.3: Cytokines, Iain B. McInnes
3.4: Ion channels and disease, Francis M. Ashcroft, PauloTammaro
3.5: Intracellular signalling, Rodrigo Andres Floto
3.6: Apoptosis in health and disease, Mark Arends, Chris Gregory
3.7: Stem cells and regenerative medicine, Siddharthan Chandran, Alexis Joannides, and Ludovic Vallier
3.8: The evolution of therapeutic antibodies, Herman Waldmann, Gregory Winter
3.9: Circulating DNA for molecular diagnostics, Dennis Lo, Rossa Chiu
• Section 4 - Immunological mechanisms
4.1: The innate immune system, Paul Bowness
4.2: The complement system, Marina Botto, Matthew Pickering
4.3: Adapative immunity, Paul Klenerman, Constantino Lopez
4.4: Immunodeficiency, Dinakantha Kumararatne, Sophie Hambleton, Sara Marshall
4.5: Allergy, Pamela Ewan
4.6: Autoimmunity, Antony Rosen
4.7: Principles of transplantation immunology, Kathryn J. Wood, Elizabeth Wallin
• Section 5 - Principles of clinical oncology
5.1: Epidemiology of cancer, Anthony Swerdlow, Richard Peto
5.2: The nature and development of cancer: cancer mutations and their implications, James Brenton
5.3: The genetics of inherited cancers, Rosalind Eeles
5.4: Cancer immunity and immunotherapy, Charles Drake
5.5: Clinical features and management, Martin Gore, Tim Eisen
5.6: Systemic treatment and radiotherapy, Rajesh Jena, Peter Harper
5.7: Medical management of breast cancer, Tim Crook
• Section 6 - Old age medicine
6.1: Ageing and clinical medicine, Neil Pendleton, Claire Steves
6.2: Frailty and sarcopenia, Andrew Clegg, Harnish Patel
6.3: Optimising well being into old age, Steve Iliffe
6.4: Older people and acute medical illness, Simon Controy, Jay Banerjee
6.5: Age atuning general hospital services, Graham Ellis, Alasdair MacLullich, and Rowan Harwood
6.6: Supporting older peoples' care in other specialist services, Jugdeep Dhesi, Judith Partridge, and Jacqueline Close
6.7: Drugs and prescribing, Miles Witham, Denis O'Mahony, and Jacob George
6.8: Falls, Faints and Fragility Fractures, Tash Masud, Fiona Kearney
6.9: Bladder and bowels, Susie Orme, Danielle Harari
6.10: Neurodegenerative disorders in older people, John Hindle
6.11: Promotion of healthy living, dignity and quality of life, Eileen Burns, Claire Scampion
• Section 7 - Pain & Pallative Care
7.1: Introduction to palliative care, Susan Salt
7.2: Pain management, Marie Fallon
7.3: Management of other symptoms, Regina McQuillan
7.4: Care of the dying person, Suzanne Kite, Adam Hurlow
• Section 8 - Infectious diseases
8.1.1: Biology of pathogenic microorganisms, Duncan Maskell, James Wood
8.1.2: Clinical features and general management of patients with severe infections, Duncan Young, Peter Watkinson
8.2.1: Clinical approach to patient with suspected infection, Christopher Ellis
8.2.2: Fever of unknown origin, Steven Vanderschueren
8.2.3: Nosocomial infection, Ian C.J.W. Bowler, Matthew Scarborough
8.2.4: Infection in the immunocompromised host, Jonathan Cohen, Elham Khatamzas
8.2.5: Antimicrobial chemotherapy, Alisdair P. MacGowan
8.3.1: Immunization, David Goldblatt, Mary Ramsay
8.4.1: Travel & expedition medicine, Chris P. Conlon, Susanna Dunachie
8.5.1: Respiratory tract viruses, Malik Peiris
8.5.2: Herpesviruses (excluding Epstein Barr virus), Patrick Sissons
8.5.3: Epstein-Barr virus, Alan B. Rickinson
8.5.4: Poxviruses, Geoffrey L. Smith
8.5.5: Mumps: epidemic parotitis, B.K. Rima
8.5.6: Measles, H.C. Whittle, Peter Aaby
8.5.7: Nipah and Hendra virus encephalitides, C.T. Tan
8.5.8: Enterovirus infections, Phillip Minor, Ulrich Desselberger
8.5.9: Virus infections causing diarrhoea and vomiting, Philip Dormitzer, Ulrich Desselberger
8.5.10: Rhabdoviruses: rabies and rabies-related lyssaviruses, M.J. Warrell, David A. Warrell
8.5.11: Colorado tick fever & other arthropod-borne reoviruses, M.J. Warrell, David A. Warrell
8.5.12: Alphaviruses, Ann Powers
8.5.13: Rubella, Pat Tookey, Jennifer M. Best
8.5.14: Flaviviruses (excepting Dengue), Nikos Vasilakis, Shannan Rossi
8.5.15: Dengue, Bridget A. Wills, Leo Yee-Sin
8.5.16: Bunyaviridae, James W. LeDuc, Dennis Bente
8.5.17: Arenaviruses, Jan ter Meulen
8.5.18: Filoviruses, Jan ter Meulen
8.5.19: Papovaviruses and polyomaviruses, Raphael P. Viscidi, Chen Sabrina Tan
8.5.20: Parvovirus B19, Kevin E. Brown
8.5.21: Hepatitis viruses (excluding hepatitis C virus), Matthew Cramp, Ashwin Dhanda
8.5.22: Hepatitis C virus, Paul Klenerman, Jane Collier
8.5.23: HIV and AIDS, Sarah Fidler, Tim Peto, Philip Goulder, and Christopher Conlon
8.5.24: HIV in low- and middle-income countries, Kevin M. De Cock, Alison D. Grant
8.5.25: HTLV-1, HTLV-2 and associated diseases, K (Tine) Verdonck, Eduardo Gotuzzo
8.5.26: Viruses and cancer, Robin A. Weiss
8.5.27: Orf and Milker s Nodule, Emma Aarons, David Warrell
8.5.28: Molluscum contagiosum, David Warrell and Christopher Conlon
8.5.29: Newly discovered viruses, Harriet Hughes, Susanna Froude
8.6.1: Diphtheria, Delia B. Bethell, Tran Tinh Hien
8.6.2: Streptococci and enterococci, Dennis L. Stevens, Sarah E. Hobdey
8.6.3: Pneumococcal infections, Anthony J. Scott
8.6.4: Staphylococci, Kyle Popovich, Robert Weinstein, and Bala Hota
8.6.5: Meningococcal infections, Petter Brandtzaeg
8.6.6: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Magnus Unemo, Jackie Sherrard
8.6.7: Enterobacteria and bacterial food-poisoning, Pennington Hugh
8.6.8: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Sharon Peacock, Gavin Koh
8.6.9: Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers, Chris Parry, Buddha Basnyat
8.6.10: Intracellular klebsiella infections (donovanosis and rhinoscleroma), Nicole Stoesser
8.6.11: Anaerobic bacteria, Anilrudh A. Venugopal, David W. Hecht
8.6.12: Cholera, A.A.M. Lima, Dick Guerrant
8.6.13: Haemophilus influenzae, Esther Robinson
8.6.14: Haemophilus ducreyi & chancroid, Nigel O'Farrell
8.6.15: Bordetella infection, Cameron Grant
8.6.16: Melioidosis & glanders, Sharon Peacock,
8.6.17: Plague: Yersinia pestis, Michael B. Prentice
8.6.18: Other Yersinia infections - yersiniosis, Michael B. Prentice
8.6.19: Pasteurella, Marina S. Morgan
8.6.20: Francisella tularensis infection, Petra C.F. Oyston
8.6.21: Anthrax, A. Brown
8.6.22: Brucellosis, Juan D. Colmenero, Pilar Morata
8.6.23: Tetanus, Louisa Thwaites, Lam Minh Yen
8.6.24: Clostridium difficile, Mark Wilcox, David Eyre
8.6.25: Botulism, gas gangrene, and clostridial gastrointestinal infections, D.L. Stevens, Michael J. Aldape, and Amy E. Bryant
8.6.26: Tuberculosis, Richard E. Chaisson, Jean B. Nachega
8.6.27: Disease caused by environmental mycobacteria, Jakko van Ingen, P.D.O. Davies
8.6.28: Leprosy (Hansen's disease), Diana N.J. Lockwood
8.6.29: Buruli ulcer: Mycobacterium ulcerans infection, W.M. Meyers, Francoise Portaels
8.6.30: Actinomycosis, Klaus P. Schaal
8.6.31: Nocardiosis, Roderick J. Hay
8.6.32: Rat bite fevers (Streptobacillus moniliformis and Spirillum minus infection), Andrew Woodhouse
8.6.33: Lyme borreliosis, John Nowakowski
8.6.34: Relapsing fevers, David A. Warrell
8.6.35: Leptospirosis, Nick Day
8.6.36: Nonvenereal endemic treponematoses: yaws, endemic syphilis (bejel), and pinta, Michael Marks, David Mabey, and Oriol Mitjà
8.6.37: Syphilis, Basil Donovan, Phillip Read
8.6.38: Listeriosis, Herbert Hof
8.6.39: Legionelleosis and legionnaires' disease, Jordi Carratala Fernandez, Diego Viasus
8.6.40: Rickettsiosis, Philippe Parola, Didier Raoult, and Karolina Griffiths
8.6.41: Scrub typhus, Daniel Paris, Nicholas P. J. Day
8.6.42: Coxiella burnetti infections (Q fever), Thomas J. Marrie
8.6.43: Bartonelloses, excluding B bacilliformis, Bruno B. Chomel, Henri-Jean Boulouis, Matthew J. Stuckey, Jean-Marc Rolain
8.6.44: Bartonella bacilliformis infection, A. Llanos-Cuentas, Ciro Maguina-Vargas
8.6.45: Chlamydial infections, Patrick Horner, David Mabey, David Taylor-Robinson, Magnus Unemo
8.6.46: Mycoplasmas, Jorgen Jensen, David Taylor-Robinson
8.6.47: A checklist of bacteria associated with infection in humans, John Paul
8.7.1: Fungal infections, Roderick J. Hay
8.7.2: Cryptococcosis, William G. Powderly,
8.7.3: Coccidioidomycosis, Gregory M. Anstead, John R. Graybill
8.7.4: Paracoccidioidomycosis, M. A. Shikanai-Yasuda
8.7.5: Pneumocystis jiroveci, Robert F. Miller, Christopher Eades
8.7.6: Taralomyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection, Khuanchai Supparatpinyo, Romanee Chaiwarith
8.7.7: Microsporidiosis, Louis Weiss
8.8.1: Amoebic infections, Richard Knight
8.8.2: Malaria, Arjen Dondorp
8.8.3: Babesiosis, Philippe Brasseur
8.8.4: Toxoplasmosis, Eskild Petersen, Oliver Liesenfeld
8.8.5: Cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis, Simone M. Cacciò
8.8.6: Cyclospora and cyclosporiasis, Paul Kelly
8.8.7: Cystoisospora, Louis Weiss
8.8.8: Sarcocystosis (sarcosporidiosis), John Cooper
8.8.9: Giardiasis and balantidiasis, Lars Eckmann
8.8.10: Blastocystis infection, Richard Knight
8.8.11: Human African trypanosomiasis, Reto Brun, Johannes Blum
8.8.12: Chagas disease, Michael Miles
8.8.13: Leishmaniasis, Diana Lockwood
8.8.14: Trichomoniasis, Jane R. Schwebke
8.9.1: Cutaneous filariasis, G. M. Burnham
8.9.2: Lymphatic filariasis, Richard Knight
8.9.3: Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis), Richard Knight
8.9.4: Strongyloidiasis, hookworm & other gut strongyloid nematodes, Michael Brown
8.9.5: Gut and tissue nematode infections acquired by ingestion, Peter Chiodini, David Grove
8.9.6: Angiostrongylus, Richard Knight
8.10.1: Cestodes (tapeworms), Richard Knight
8.10.2: Cystic hydatid disease (Echinococcus granulosus), Pedro Moro, Hector H. Garcia, and Armando E. Gonzalez
8.10.3: Cysticercosis, Hector H. Garcia, R. H. Gilman
8.11.1: Schistosomiasis, David Dunne, Birgitte Vennervald
8.11.2: Liver fluke infections, Ross Andrews, Paiboon Sithithaworn, Trevor Petney, and Khuntikeo Narong
8.11.3: Lung flukes (paragonimiasis), Udomsak Silachamroon, Sirivan Vanijanonta
8.11.4: Intestinal trematode infections, Alastair McGregor
8.12: Non-venomous arthropods, John Paul
8.13: Pentostomiasis (porocephalosis, linguatulosis/ linguatuliasis or tongue worm infection), D. A. Warrell
• Section 9 - Sexually transmitted diseases
9.1: Epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases, David Mabey, Anita Vas-Falcao
9.2: Sexual behaviour, Catherine H. Mercer, Annie M. Johnson
9.3: Sexual history and examination, Gary Brook, Jackie Sherrard, and Graziano Luzzi
9.4: Vaginal discharge, Paul Nyirjesy
9.5: Urethritis, Paddy Horner
9.6: Ano-genital ulcers, Raj Patel, Patrick French
9.7: Ano-genital lumps, Charles Lacey, Henry de Vries
9.8: Pelvic inflammatory disease, Jonathan Ross
9.9: Principles of contraception, Zara Haider
• Section 10 - Environmental medicine, occupational medicine, and poisoning
10.1: Introduction, Jonathan Ayers
10.2.1: Occupational and environmental health, Raymond Agius, Sen Debasish
10.2.2: Occupational safety, Lawrence Waterman, Michelle Twigg
10.2.3: Aviation medicine, Michael Bagshaw
10.2.4: Diving medicine, Mark Glover
10.2.5: Noise, David Koh, Tar-Ching Aw
10.2.6: Vibration, Tar-Ching Aw
10.3.1: Air pollution, Om Kurmi, Kin Bong Hubert Lam
10.3.2: Heat, M.A. Stroud
10.3.3: Cold, M.A. Stroud
10.3.4: Drowning, Peter Fenner
10.3.5: Lightning and electrical injuries, Chris Andrews
10.3.6: Diseases of high terrestrial altitudes, Eric Swenson, Tyler J. Albert
10.3.7: Radiation, Jill Meara
10.3.8: Disasters: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes & floods, Peter J. Baxter
10.3.9: Bioterrorism, Manfred Green
10.4.1: Poisoning by drugs and chemicals, J.A. Vale, Nick Bateman, and Sally Bradberry
10.4.2: Injuries, envenoming, poisoning, allergic reactions caused by animals, D. A. Warrell
10.4.3: Poisonous fungi, D. A. Warrell, Hans Persson
10.4.4: Poisonous plants, Michael Eddleston, Hans Persson
• Section 11 - Nutrition
11.1: Macronutrient metabolism, Keith N. Frayn, Rhys Evans
11.2: Vitamins, Tom Hill, David Bender
11.3: Minerals and trace elements, Katherine Younger
11.4: Severe malnutrition, Alan Jackson
11.5: Diseases of affluent societies and the need for dietary change, Jim Mann, Stewart Truswell
11.6: Obesity, Sadaf Farooqi
11.7: Artificial nutrition support, Jeremy Woodward
• Section 12 - Metabolic disorders
12.1: The inborn errors of metabolism - general aspects, Timothy M. Cox
12.2: Protein-dependent Inborn errors of metabolism, George Hoffman, Stefan Koelker
12.3.1: Glycogen storage diseases, Robin Lachmann, Timothy M. Cox
12.3.2: Inborn errors of fructose metabolism, Timothy M. Cox
12.3.3: Disorders of galactose, pentose, and pyruvate metabolism, Timothy M. Cox
12.4: Disorders of purine and pyrimidine metabolism, Lynette Fairbanks, Tony Marinaki, and Richard W. E. Watts
12.5: The porphyrias, Timothy M. Cox
12.6: Lipid and lipoprotein disorders, James Scott, Jaimini Cegla
12.7.1: Hereditary haemochromatosis, William J. H. Griffiths, Timothy M. Cox
12.7.2: Inherited diseases of copper metabolism: Wilson's Disease and Menke's Disease, Pramod Mistry, Michael Schilsky
12.8: Lysosomal disease, Patrick B. Deegan, Timothy M. Cox
12.9: Disorders of peroxisomal metabolism in adults, Anthony Wierzbicki
12.10: Hereditary disorders of oxalate metabolism the primary hyperoxalurias, Christopher Danpure, Sonia Fargue, and Dawn Milliner
12.11: Disturbances of acid base homeostasis, Julian Seifter
12.12.1: The acute phase response and C-reactive protein, Mark Pepys
12.12.2: Hereditary periodic fever syndrome, Helen Lachmann, Philip Hawkins, and Stefan Berg
12.12.3: Amyloidosis, Mark Pepys, Philip Hawkins
12.13: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency and the serpinopathies, David A. Lomas
• Section 13 - Endocrine disorders
13.1: Principles of hormone action, V. Krishna Chatterjee, Mark Gurnell, and Rob Fowkes
13.2.1: Disorders of the anterior pituitary gland, John Wass, Niki Karavitaki
13.2.2: Disorders of the posterior pituitary gland, John Wass, Niki Karavitaki, and Shahzada K. Ahmed
13.3.1: The thyroid gland and disorders of thyroid function, Anthony P. Weetman, Kristien Boelaert
13.3.2: Thyroid cancer, Kristien Boelaert, Anthony P. Weetman
13.4: Parathyroid disorders & diseases altering calcium metabolism, Rajesh V. Thakker
13.5.1: Disorders of the adrenal cortex, Mark Sherlock, Will Drake, and Mark Gurnell
13.5.2: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Nils Krone
13.6.1: Ovarian disorders, Stephen Franks
13.6.2: Disorders of male reproduction, Pierre Bouloux
13.6.3: Benign breast disease, Gael M. MacLean
13.6.4: Sexual dysfunction, Ian Eardley
13.7.1: Normal growth and its disorders, Gary Butler
13.7.2: Normal puberty and its disorders, Fiona Ryan, Sejal Patel
13.7.3: Normal and abnormal sexual differentiation, Ahmed Faisal, Angela Lucas-Herald
13.8: Pancreatic endocrine disorders & MEN, Stephen Bloom, Tricia Tan, and Bernard Khoo
13.9.1: Diabetes mellitus, Colin Dayan, Julia Platts
13.9.2: Hypoglycaemia, Mark Evans, Ben Challis
13.10: Hormonal manifestations of non-endocrine disorders, John Wass, Tom Barber
13.11: The pineal gland and melatonin, Jo Arendt, Tim Cox
• Section 14 - Medical disorders in pregnancy
14.1: Physiological changes of normal pregnancy, David J. Williams
14.2: Nutrition in pregnancy, David J. Williams
14.3: Medical management of normal pregnancy, David J. Williams
14.4: Hypertension in pregnancy, Fergus McCarthy
14.5: Renal disease in pregnancy, Kate Wiles
14.6: Heart disease in pregnancy, Catherine E. Head
14.7: Thrombosis in pregnancy, Peter McCallum, Louise Bowles
14.8: Chest disease in pregnancy, Tina Hartert, Meredith Pugh
14.9: Liver and gastrointestinal disease during pregnancy, Cath Williamson, Michael Heneghan
14.10: Diabetes in pregnancy, Bryony Jones, Anne Dornhurst
14.11: Endocrine disease in pregnancy, David Carty
14.12: Neurological conditions in pregnancy, Pooja Dassan
14.13: The skin in pregnancy, Gudula Kirtschig, Fenella Wojnarowska
14.14: Autoimmune rheumatic disorders & vasculitis in pregnancy, Cathy Nelson-Piercy, May Ching Soh
14.15: Maternal infection in pregnancy, Rosie Burton
14.16: Fetal effects of maternal infection, Lawrence Impey
14.17: Blood disorders in pregnancy, David Perry, Katharine Lowndes
14.18: Malignant disease in pregnancy, Robin A. F. Crawford
14.19: Maternal critical care, Rupert Gauntlett
14.20: Prescribing in pregnancy, Lucy MacKillop, Charlotte Frise
14.21: Contraception for women with medical diseases, Aarthi Mohan
• Section 15 - Gastroenterological disorders
15.1: Structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract, Satish Keshav, Michael FitzPatrick
15.2: Symptoms of gastrointestinal disease, Jeremy Woodward
15.3.1: Colonoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy, James East, Brian P. Saunders
15.3.2: Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, James East, George Webster
15.3.3: Radiology of the gastrointestinal tract, Michael Maher, Fiona Moloney
15.3.4: Investigation of gastrointestinal function, Jervoise Andreyev
15.4.1: The acute abdomen, Justin Davies, Simon Buczacki
15.4.2: Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Vanessa Brown, TA Rockall
15.5: Immune disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, Arthur Kaser, Joya Bhattacharyya
15.6: The mouth and salivary glands, John Gibson, Douglas Robertson
15.7: Diseases of the oesophagus, Rebecca C. Fitzgerald, Massimiliano di Pietro
15.8: Peptic ulcer disease, Joseph Sung, Mok Hing Yiu
15.9.1: Hormones and the gastrointestinal tract, Rebecca Scott, T.M. Tan, S.R. Bloom
15.9.2: Carcinoid syndrome, B. Khoo, T.M. Tan, S.R. Bloom
15.10.1: Differential diagnosis and investigation of malabsorption, Alastair Forbes, Victoria Mulcahy
15.10.2: Bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine, Ray Playford, Stephen Middleton
15.10.3: Coeliac disease, David Sanders, Peter Mooney
15.10.4: Gastrointestinal lymphomas, Kikkeri N. Naresh
15.10.5: Disaccharidase Deficiency, Timothy M. Cox
15.10.6: Whipple's Disease, Didier Raoult, Florence Fenollar
15.10.7: Effects of massive bowel resection, Stephen Middleton, Simon Gabe, Raymond Playford
15.10.8: Malabsorption syndromes in the Tropics, Vineet Ahuja, Govind Makharia
15.11: Crohn's disease, Miles Parkes, Tim Raine
15.12: Ulcerative colitis, Peter Irving, Jeremy Sanderson
15.13: Irritable bowel syndrome, Qasim Aziz, Adam Farmer
15.14: Colonic diverticular disease, Niel Mortensen, Nicholas Buchs, Roel Hompes, Shazad Ashraf
15.15: Congenital abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract, Uhlig Holm
15.16: Cancers of the gastrointestinal tract, J. Bridgewater, Stephen Pereira, Peter Labib,
15.17: Vascular disorders of the GI tract, Ray Boyapati
15.18: Gastrointestinal infections, Sarah O'Brien
15.19: Miscellaneous disorders of the bowel, Alexander E. S. Gimson
15.20: Structure and function of the liver, biliary tree and pancreas, Alexander E. S. Gimson, William Gelson
15.21: Pathobiology of chronic liver disease, Wajahat Mehal
15.22.1: Investigation and management of jaundice, Jane Collier
15.22.2: Cirrhosis and ascites, Arroyo Vicente, Javier Fernández
15.22.3: Portal hypertension and variceal bleeding, Peter Hayes, Marcus Robertson
15.22.4: Hepatic encephalopathy, Debbie Shawcross, Paul Middleton
15.22.5: Liver failure, Rajiv Jalan, Jane Macnaughtan
15.22.6: Liver transplantation, John O'Grady
15.23.1: Hepatitis A to E, Alexander Graeme, Kate Nash
15.23.2: Autoimmune hepatitis, Gideon Hirschfield, G. J. Webb
15.23.3: Primary biliary cholangitis, David Jones, Jessica Dyson
15.23.4: Primary sclerosing cholangitis, Roger W. Chapman, Kate Williamson
15.24.1: Alcoholic liver disease, Ewan Forrest
15.24.2: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Quentin Anstee, Chris Day
15.24.3: Drug-induced liver disease, Guruprasad Aithal
15.24.4: Vascular disorders of the liver, Alexander Gimson
15.24.5: The liver in systemic disease, James Neuberger
15.24.6: Primary and secondary liver tumours, Michael Allison, Graeme Alexander, David Lomas
15.24.7: Liver and biliary diseases in infancy and childhood, Richard Thompson
15.25: Diseases of the gallbladder and biliary tree, Colin Johnson, Mark Wright
15.26.1: Acute pancreatitis, Ross Carter, Colin McKay, Euan Dickson
15.26.2: Chronic pancreatitis, Marco Bruno, Djuna Cahen
15.26.3: Tumours of the pancreas, Steve Pereira, James Skipworth
• Section 16 - Cardiovascular disorders
16.1.1: Blood vessels and the endothelium, Keith Channon, Patrick Vallance
16.1.2: Cardiac physiology, Rhys Evans, Kenneth MacLeod, Steven B. Marston, and Nicholas J. Severs
16.2.1: Chest pain, breathlessness and fatigue, Jeremy Dwight
16.2.2: Syncope and palpitation, Kim Rajappan, A. C. Rankin, A. D. McGavigan, and S. M. Cobbe
16.3.1: Electrocardiography, Andrew R. Houghton, David Gray
16.3.2: Echocardiography, Adrian P. Banning, Andrew R. J. Mitchell, and James D. Newton
16.3.3: Cardiac investigations: nuclear, MRI and CT, Nikant Sabharwal, Andrew Kelion, Theo Karamitos, and Stefan Neubauer
16.3.4: Cardiac catheterisation and angiography, Edward D. Folland
16.4: Cardiac arrhythmias, Matthew Ginks, Gregory Y. H. Lip, D. Lane, S. M. Cobbe, A. D. McGavigan, and A. C. Rankin
16.5.1: Epidemiology and general pathophysiological classification of heart failure, Theresa McDonagh, Kaushik Guha
16.5.2: Acute heart failure: definitions, investigation and management, Andrew L. Clark, John G. F. Cleland
16.5.3: Chronic heart failure: definitions, investigation and management, John G. F. Cleland, Andrew L. Clark
16.5.4: Cardiorenal syndrome, Darren Green, Philip Kalra
16.5.5: Cardiac transplantation and mechanical circulatory support, Jayan Parameshwar, Steven Tsui
16.6: Valvular heart disease, Michael Henein
16.7.1: Myocarditis, Jay W. Mason
16.7.2: The cardiomyopathies: hypertrophic, dilated, restrictive and right ventricular, William J. McKenna, Perry Elliot, and Oliver Guttman
16.7.3: Speciac heart muscle disorders
16.8: Pericardial disease, Michael Henein
16.9.1: Acute rheumatic fever, Jonathan R. Carapetis
16.9.2: Endocarditis, James L. Harrison, Bernard D. Prendergast, and William A. Littler
16.9.3: Cardiac disease in HIV infection, Peter F. Currie
16.9.4: Cardiovascular syphilis, Krishna Somers
16.10: Tumours of the heart, Thomas A. Traill
16.11: Cardiac involvement in genetic disease, Thomas A. Traill
16.12: Congenital heart disease in the adult, S. A. Thorne
16.13.1: Biology & pathology of atherosclerosis, Robin P. Choudhury, Edward A. Fisher
16.13.2: Coronary heart disease: epidemiology and prevention, Goodarz Danaei, Kazem Rahimi
16.13.3: Management of stable angina, Adam D. Timmis
16.13.4: Management of acute coronary syndromes, Keith A. A. Fox, Rajesh K. Kharbanda
16.13.5: Percutaneous interventional cardiac procedures, Edward D. Folland
16.13.6: Coronary artery bypass and valve surgery, Rana Sayeed, David Taggart
16.14.1: Acute aortic syndromes, Andrew R. J. Mitchell, James D. Newton, and Adrian P. Banning
16.14.2: Peripheral arterial disease, Janet Powell, Alun Davies
16.14.3: Cholesterol embolism, Christopher Dudley
16.15.1: Structure and function of the pulmonary circulation, Nicholas W. Morrell
16.15.2: Pulmonary hypertension, Nicholas W. Morrell
16.16.1: Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, Paul D. Stein, Fadi Matta, and John D. Firth
16.16.2: Therapeutic anticoagulation, David Keeling
16.17.1: Essential hypertension: definition, epidemiology and pathophysiology, Bryan Williams
16.17.2: Essential hypertension: diagnosis, assessment and treatment, Bryan Williams, John D. Firth
16.17.3: Secondary hypertension, Morris J. Brown, Fraz Mir
16.17.4: Mendelian disorders causing hypertension, Nilesh J. Samani, Maciej Tomaszewski
16.17.5: Hypertensive urgencies and emergencies, Gregory Y. H. Lip, Gareth Beevers
16.18: Chronic peripheral oedema and lymphoedema, Peter S. Mortimer
16.19: Idiopathic oedema of women, John D. Firth
• Section 17 - Critical care
17.1: The clinical approach to the patient who is very ill, Carole Foot, Liz Hickson
17.2: Cardiac arrest, Gavin Perkins, Jasmeet Soar, Jerry P. Nolan, and David A. Gabbott,
17.3: Anaphylaxis, Anthony F. T. Brown
17.4: Preparing patients with medical conditions for major surgery, Rupert Pearse, Tom Abbott
17.5: Acute respiratory failure, Mark Griffiths, Simon Finney, Jeremy Cordingley, and Susannah Leaver,
17.6: The circulation and circulatory support in the critically ill, Michael Pinsky
17.7: Management of raised intracranial pressure, David K. Menon
17.8: Sedation and analgesia in the ICU, Michael Reade
17.9: Metabolic and endocrine changes in acute and chronic critical illness, Greet Van den Berghe, Eva Boonen
17.10: Palliative and end of life care in the ICU, Philip Levin, Charles Sprung
17.11: Neurological death and organ donation, Paul Murphy
17.12: Medical problems in ICU survivors, T Jack Iwashyna, Mark Mikkelsen
• Section 18 - Respiratory disorders
18.1.1: The upper respiratory tract, Pallav Shah
18.1.2: Airways and alveoli, Pallav Shah
18.2: The clinical presentation of respiratory disease, Samuel Kemp, Julian Hopkin
18.3.1: Respiratory function tests, G. J. Gibson
18.3.2: Thoracic imaging, Sue Copley
18.3.3: Bronchoscopy, thoracoscopy and tissue biopsy, Pallav Shah
18.4.1: Upper respiratory tract infections, Paul Little
18.4.2: Pneumonia in the normal host, Wei Shen Lim
18.4.3: Nosocomial pneumonia, Wei Shen Lim
18.4.4: Mycobacteria, Onn Min Kon, Hannah Jarvis
18.4.5: Pulmonary complications of HIV infection, Anton Pozniak, Julia Choy,
18.5.1: Upper airway obstruction, Matthew Hind, James Hull
18.5.2: Sleep-related breathing disorders, Mary Morrell, Matthew Hind, Julia Kelly, and Alison McMillan
18.6: Allergic rhinitis, S. R. Durham, Hesham Saleh
18.7: Asthma, Andrew Menzies-Gow, Alexandra Nanzer-Kelly
18.8: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Nicholas Hopkinson
18.9: Bronchiectasis, Wilson Robert
18.10: Cystic fibrosis, Andrew Bush, Caroline Elston
18.11.1: Diffuse parenchymal lung disease: an introduction, Athol U. Wells, Felicia Teo
18.11.2: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Athol U. Wells, P. Molyneaux, and A. G. Nicholson
18.11.3: Bronchiolitis obliterans and cryptogenic organising pneumonia, Athol U. Wells, V. Kouranos
18.11.4: The lung in autoimmune rheumatic disorders, Athol U. Wells, M. Kokosi
18.11.5: The lung in vasculitis, Athol U. Wells, G. P. Margaritopoulos
18.12: Sarcoidosis, Robert P. Baughman, Elyse E. Lower
18.13: Pneumoconioses, Peter Reid
18.14.1: Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage, Stephen Bourke, Gavin P. Spickett
18.14.2: Eosinophilic pneumonia, Stephen Bourke, Gavin P. Spickett
18.14.3: Lymphocytic infiltrations of the lung, Stephen Bourke
18.14.4: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, Stephen Bourke, Gavin P. Spickett
18.14.5: Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, Stephen Bourke
18.14.6: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis, Stephen Bourke
18.14.7: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, Stephen Bourke
18.14.8: Pulmonary amyloidosis, Stephen Bourke
18.14.9: Lipoid (lipid) pneumonia, Stephen Bourke
18.14.10: Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis, Stephen Bourke
18.14.11: Toxic gases and aerosols, Chris Stenton
18.14.12: Radiation pneumonitis, Stephen Bourke
18.14.13: Drug-induced lung disease, Stephen Bourke
18.15: Chronic Respiratory Failure, Michael Polkey
18.16: Lung transplantation, Andrew Fisher, Peter Hopkins
18.17: Pleural disease, Nicholas Maskell, Duneesha de Fonseka
18.18: Disorders of the thoracic cage and diaphragm, Michael Polkey, John Shneerson
18.19.1: Lung cancer, Stephen G. Spiro
18.19.2: Pulmonary metastases, Stephen G. Spiro
18.19.3: Pleural tumours, Y.C. Gary Lee
18.19.4: Mediastinal tumours and cysts, Y.C. Gary Lee
• Section 19 - Rheumatological disorders
19.1: Structure and function - Joints and connective tissue, Thomas Pap
19.2: Clinical presentation and diagnosis of rheumatological disorders, Christopher Deighton, Fiona Pearce
19.3: Clinical investigation, Michael Doherty, Peter C. Lanyon
19.4: Back pain and regional disorders, Carlo Ammendolia
19.5: Rheumatoid arthritis, John Isaacs, Kenneth Baker
19.6: Spondyloarthritis and related conditions, J. Braun, Joachim Sieper
19.7: Infection and arthritis, Graham Raftery, Muddassir Shaikh
19.8: Reactive arthritis, Carmel Stober, Hill Gaston
19.9: Osteoarthritis, Philip Conaghan
19.10: Crystal-related arthropathies, Michael Doherty, Edward Roddy
19.11.1: Introduction, David A. Isenberg, Ian A. Giles
19.11.2: Systemic lupus erythematosus and related disorders, David A. Isenberg, Anisur Rahman
19.11.3: Systemic sclerosis, Christopher Denton
19.11.4: Sjogren's syndrome, Wan-Fai Ng
19.11.5: Myositis, Ingrid Lundberg, Hector Chinoy, and Robert Cooper
19.11.6: Large vessel vasculitis (Takayasu, GCA), Raashid Luqmani, Cristina Ponte
19.11.7: ANCA associated vasculitis, David Jayne
19.11.8: Polyarteritis nodosa, Loic Guillevin,
19.11.9: Small vessel vasculitis, Richard Watts
19.11.10: Behcet's syndrome, Hassan Yazici, Sebahattin Yurdakul, and Izznet Fresko
19.11.11: Polymyalgia rheumatica, Eric Matteson, Bhaskar Dasgupta
19.11.12: Kawasaki disease, Brian McCrindle
19.12: Miscellaneous conditions presenting to the rheumatologist, Ade Adebajo, Lisa Dunkley, and Stuart Carter
• Section 20 - Disorders of the skeleton
20.1: Skeletal disorders general approach and clinical conditions, Paul Wordsworth, Kassin Javaid
20.2: Inherited defects of connective tissue: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, and pseudoxanthoma elasticum, Nigel Burrows
20.3: Osteomyelitis, Martin McNally
20.4: Osteoporosis, Nick Harvey, Cyrus Cooper, and Juliet Compston
20.5: Osteonecrosis, osteochondrosis, and osteochondritis dissecans, Gavin Clunie
20.6: Bone cancer, Helen Hatcher
• Section 21 - Disorders of the kidney and urinary tract
21.1: Structure and function of the kidney, Steve Harper
21.2.1: Disorders of water and sodium homeostasis, Michael L. Moritz, Juan Carlos Ayus
21.2.2: Disorders of potassium homeostasis, John Firth
21.3: Clinical presentation of renal disease, John Firth
21.4: Clinical investigation of renal disorders, Andrew Davenport
21.5: Acute kidney injury, John Firth
21.6: Chronic kidney disease, Alastair Hutchinson
21.7.1: Haemodialysis, Robert Mactier
21.7.2: Peritoneal dialysis, Simon Davies
21.7.3: Renal transplantation, Nick Torpey
21.8.1: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy and Henoch Schönlein purpura, John Feehally, Jonathan Barratt
21.8.2: Thin membrane nephropathy, John Feehally, Peter Topham
21.8.3: Minimal change nephropathy and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, Saleem Moin, Lisa Willcocks
21.8.4: Membranous nephropathy, Fernando Fervenza, An DeVriese
21.8.5: Proliferative glomerulonephritis, Mark Little, Alan Sala

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