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• Section 1: Anatomy and Genetics of ACL Injury
1. Anatomy and Biomechanics of the ACL
2. Genetic Influences on ACL Injury
3. The Association Between ACL Tear and Femoro-Aceteblar Impingement
• Section 2: Mechanism, Incidence and Epidemiology of ACL Injury
4. Mechanisms of Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries
5. Risk and Gender Factors for Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury
6. Risk of ACL injury as a function of type of Playing Surface
7. The Incidence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury as a Function of Gender, Sport, and Injury-Reduction Programs
8. Analysis of ACL Injury Prevention Programs for the Female Athlete
• Section 3: Diagnosis and Treatment of ACL tears
9. Diagnosis of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear
10. MRI for the diagnosis and treatment of ACL tears
11. Nonoperative Management of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficient Patients
• Section 4: Economics of ACLR
12. The Economics of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear and Reconstruction
13. An Economic Analysis of ACL Tear Treatment: 1. Reconstruction versus Rehabilitation and 2. Early Reconstruction versus Rehabilitation with Optional Late Reconstruction
• Section 5: Graft Mechanical Properties
14. The Relative Strengths of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Autografts and Allografts
15. Comparative and Morphological Analysis of Commonly Used Autografts for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with the Native ACL: An Electron, Microscopic and Morphologic Study
• Section 6: Graft Choices
16. The Case for the Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Autograft with ACL Reconstruction
17. The Case for Hamstring ACL Reconstruction
18. The case for Quadriceps Autograft
19. Current Status on Synthetic Grafts
• Section 7: Graft Harvest Techniques, Preparation and Complications
20. Hamstring Harvest Technique for ACL Reconstruction
21. Posterior Mini-Incision Hamstring Harvest Approach for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
22. Technique for Harvesting a Mid-Third Patella Tendon Graft for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
23. The Central Quadriceps Free Tendon for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
24. Hamstring Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with a Quadrupled or Tripled Semitendinosus Tendon Graft
25. 5- and 6-Strand Hamstring Tendon Graft Preparation for Single-Bundle Hamstring ACL Reconstruction
26. Harvest Complications and Donor Site Morbidity: Hamstring Grafts
27. Harvest Complications and Morbidity of Patellar Tendon Harvest for BPTB ACL Reconstruction
28. Harvest Complications and Donor Site Morbidity: Quadriceps Grafts
29. Chemical sterilization techniques for Allograft preparation for ACLR
30. Radiation Sterilization techniques for Allograft preparation for ACLR
31. Hamstring Regeneration Following Harvest for ACL Reconstruction: A Review of the Current Literature
32. Regeneration of the Donor Site After Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Graft Harvest for ACL Reconstruction, and Possible Enhanced Regeneration Using Platelet Rich Plasma
• Section 8: Reconstruction Techniques
33. Pearls for ACL Reconstruction
34. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Hamstrings in Press-Fit Technique Without Hardware
35. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Quadriceps Tendon Autograft
36. Three Portal Technique for Anatomic Single-Bundle ACL Reconstruction
37. Anatomical Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Procedure Using the Semitendinosus and Gracilis Tendons
38. Anatomical Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with a Semitendinosus Hamstring Tendon Graft
39. Anatomic Double-Bundle Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament
40. Augmented Grafts: Synthetic/Allograft/Autograft
41. A Systematic Review of Single vs Double Bundle Results
• Section 9: Principles of Tunnel Formation
42. Trans Tibial Tunnel Drilling of the Femoral Tunnel for Anatomic Single Bundle ACL Reconstruction
43. The Anteromedial Portal for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
44. Intraoperative Fluoroscopy for ACL Tunnel Placement
45. ACL All-Inside Retroconstruction: Single- and Double-Bundle Techniques
46. SwitchCut all inside tunnel formation
47. Use of the Pinpoint Guide System for ACL Reconstruction
48. Femoral Tunnel Placement to Restore Normal Knee Laxity After ACL Reconstrution
49. A Description of the Direct Femoral Attachment of the ACL: Implication for Femoral Tunnel Placement in Reconstruction
50. Use of Versitomic Flexible Reamer System for ACL Reconstruction
• Section 10: Control of Pain in ACLR
51. Risks and Benefits of Femoral Nerve Block for ACLR
52. Saphenous Nerve Block for ACL Reconstruction
53. Efficacy of Cryotherapy for postoperative ACL Reconstruction Analgesia
54. Chondrolysis: Risk Benefit Analysis of "Caine" Local Anesthetics for ACL Reconstruction
55. Use of Preoperative Gabapentin for Postoperative Pain Relief After ACL Reconstruction
56. Obturator and Sciatica Nerve Block for ACL Reconstruction
• Section 11: Additional Surgical Considerations
57. Notch Anatomy and Notchplasty
58. Computer-Assisted Navigation for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
59. Sparing the ACL Remnant: Is it worth the hassle?
60. Graft Tensioning in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
61. The Use of CO2 instead of fluid in Arthroscopic ACL Reconstruction
• Section 12: Fixation Biomechanics
62. Intratunnel ACL Graft Fixation
63. Biomechanical Considerations of Suspensory Cortical Fixation Devices
• Section 13: Soft-Tissue Graft Cortical Fixation
64. Endobutton Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Femoral Fixation
65. Cortical Screw Post Femoral Fixation Using Whipstitches, Fabric Loop or Endobutton: the Universal Salvage
66. Arthrex Tightrope Fixation of a Soft Tissue Graft
67. RigidLoop Femoral Fixation Techniques
68. MedShape Exo Shape Fixation
69. Biomet ToggleLoc
70. EZLoc : Optimizing Femoral Fixation for Soft Tissue Graft Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
• Section 14: Soft-Tissue Graft Interference Screw Fixation
71. Hamstring Tendon Interference Screw Fixation
72. Cayenne Aperfix Fixation
73. Milagro Advance (Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate, Poly Lactide Co-Glycolide Biocomposite) Interference Screw for ACL Reconstruction
74. Hamstring ACL Reconstruction with BioIntraFix Femoral Fastener
75. ComposiTCP Fixation
76. Bioabsorbable Versus Metal Interference Screws: Adverse Events and Clinical Results
77. Use of TunneLoc for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
78. Improving Biodegradable Interference Screw Properties by Combining Polymers
• Section 15: Soft-Tissue Graft Tibial Fixation
79. Whipstitch-Post Tibial Fixaton for ACL Reconstruction
80. WasherLoc: Optimizing Tibial Fixation of Soft Tissue Grafts used for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
81. Hamstring Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with INTRAFIX and BioINTRAFIX Tibial Fastener Systems
• Section 16: BTB Graft Fixation
82. Interference Screw Fixation in Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone ACL Reconstruction
83. Use of the Tightrope BTB for ACL Reconstruction
84. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using a Mini-Arthrotomy Technique with Either an Ipsilateral or a Contralateral Autogenous Patellar Tendon Graft
85. ACL Reconstruction using ENDOBUTTON CL BTB Fixation System: For both Antero-Medial and Transtibial Reaming of the Femoral Tunnel
• Section 17: Graft Healing and Ligamentization
86. Graft Remodeling and Ligamentization After ACL Reconstruction
87. Graft-tunnel healing
88. Graft Length in the Tunnel in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
• Section 18: Revision ACLR
89. Revision ACL Reconstruction Using Autologous Hamstring Tendons
90. Hamstring Four to Six Strand Double Bundle Graft for Revision or High Risk Primary ACL Reconstruction
91. Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Autograft
92. Revision ACL Reconstruction: Management of Femoral Tunnel Malposition
93. Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction - the MARS Study
• Section 19: ACLR in Skeletally Immature Patients
94. Techniques and Complications of Transphyseal Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in the Skeletally Immature Patient
95. An Overview of the Diagnosis and Treatment of the Torn ACL in the Skeletally Immature Athlete
96. Operative Versus Nonoperative Treatment and Timing of Surgery in Skeletally Immature Patients with ACL Tear
• Section 20: ACL Partial Tears
97. Partial Tear of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Management with One Bundle Augmentation Technique
98. Acute ACL Rupture: A Biological Approach Through Primary ACL Repair; Augmentation with Bone Marrow Stimulation; Growth Factor Injection
99. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction of Partial Tears: Isolated Single Bundle Reconstruction
100. Sonographically Guided Anterior Cruciate (ACL) Injection: Technique and Potential Use for the Treatment of Partial ACL Tear
• Section 21: Associated Injuries of the Bone, Ligament, Meniscus, Cartilage and Nerve
101. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Combined with Medial Collateral Ligament, Posterior Cruciate Ligament, and/or Lateral Collateral Ligament Injury
102. Treatment of Meniscus Tears with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
103. Meniscal repair with ACLR
104. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Combined with High-Tibial Osteotomy, Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation, Microfracture, Osteochondral, and/or Meniscal Allograft Transplantation
105. ACL-Deficiency in the Varus-Angulated Knee: Diagnosis, Surgical Techniques, Clinical Outcomes
106. W6: The Treatment of Combined Posterolateral Knee Injures and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears
107. ACLR Related Bone Contusions: Association with Intrarticular Injury, Pain and Outcomes
108. Ganglion Cyst
• Section 22: ACLR and UKA
109. Indications for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in ACL Deficient Patients undergoing Unicondylar Knee Arthroplasty
110. Techniques for Combined ACLR and UKA
• Section 23: Rehabilitation
111. ACL Strain Behavior During Rehabilitation Exercises
112. Principles of ACL Rehabilitation
113. The Stability-Conservative ACL Reconstruction Rehabilitation Protocol
114. Proprioception and ACL Reconstruction
115. Functional Bracing for ACL Injuries: Current State and Future Direction
116. Prehabilitation Before ACLR
• Section 24: Outcomes After ACLR
117. Stability Results After ACL Reconstruction
118. Health Related Quality of Life After ACLR
119. Allografts Have Higher Failure Rates Than Autografts in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Young, Active Patients
120. Factors Associated With the Increased Allograft Failure Rate In ACL Reconstruction
121. Are Articular Cartilage Lesions and Meniscus Tears Predictive of IKDC, KOOS, and Marx Activity Level Outcomes After ACLR
122. Arthrosis Following ACL Tear and Reconstruction
123. Criteria for Return to Sports After ACLR
124. A comparison of the Standardized Rating Forms for Evaluation of ACL Injured or Reconstructed Patients
• Section 25: Patient Factors that Contribute to Success or Failure
125. ACLR Outcomes as a Function of Age
126. BMI and Weight Effects on the Results of ACLR
127. The Effects of Smoking on ACLR Outcomes
128. Psychological Predictors of ACLR Outcomes
• Section 26: Return to Sports
129. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Patients with Hereditary Abnormalities Involving Connective Tissue
130. Performance and Return to Sport After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Skiers and Snowboarders
131. Return to play and future ACL Injury Risk After ACL reconstruction in Soccer Players
132. Return to American Football After ACL Reconstruction
• Section 27: Complications
133. Infections in ACL Surgery
134. Osteoporosis After ACL Reconstruction?
135. Tunnel Widening After ACL Reconstruction
136. Numbness/Saphenous Nerve
137. Hardware Complications After ACL Reconstruction
138. Vascular Complications After ACL Reconstruction and DVT prophylaxis
139. Fracture Complications After ACL Reconstruction
140. Anterior Knee Problems After ACL Reconstruction
141. Stiffness: Prevention and Treatment
142. Treatment of Tibial Eminence Fractures: A Systematic Review
• Section 28: Gait Analysis and ExtraArticular Reconstruction
143. Gait Analysis in ACL Deficient and Reconstructed Knees
144. Extra-Articular Tenodesis and ACL Recontruction: Techniques and Outcomes
• Section 29: Tissue Engineering and the Future
145. Growth Factors and Other New Methods for Graft-Healing Enhancement
146. The Future Possibilities of Biologic ACLR

Now in a combined resource that includes print, eBook, and video, The Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Reconstruction and Basic Science, 2nd Edition, by Dr. Chadwick Prodromos, provides the expert guidance you need to effectively select the right procedure and equipment, prevent complications, and improve outcomes for every patient. Written and edited by world leaders in hamstring, allograft, and bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB) ACL reconstruction, this revised reference is a must-have resource for the full range of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction techniques, plus fixation devices, rehabilitation, revision ACLR surgery, and much more!

New To This Edition:
• Covers the latest clinical and technical information on pain control, genetics and biologics, the use of ultrasound, and much more.
• EBook access features an exhaustive ACL bibliography database more than 5000 available articles.
• Features dozens of new chapters that offer up-to-date information on pain control after ACLR, single vs. double bundle repairs, genetics and collagen type, all-inside techniques, biologics, pediatrics, ACL ganglion cysts, prognosis for ACLR success, allografts vs. autografts, and more.
• Provides the experience and insight of a "dream team" of ACL experts, including James Andrews on sports medicine, Frank Noyes on HTO and ACLR, and Andrew Amis on the benefits of the older femoral tunnel placement technique.
• Expert Consult™ eBook version included with purchase. This enhanced eBook experience allows you to search all of the text, figures, Q&As, and references from the book on a variety of devices.

Chadwick Prodromos, MD, Medical Director, Illinois Orthoapedics and Sports Medicine Centers; Associate Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rush University College of Medicine, Chicago, IL