• Part 1: Healthy Skin Microbiome and Oral-Skin Interactions 1
1 The Microbiome of Healthy Skin 3
2 The Gut Microbiome-Skin Axis: Impact on Skin and Systemic Health 33
3 The Skin and Oral Microbiome: An Examination of Overlap and Potential Interactions between Microbiome Communities 45
• Part 2: Skin Microbiome Observational Research 59
4 Skin Microbiome Alterations in Skin Diseases 61
5 The Axillary Microbiome and its Relationship with Underarm Odor 79
6 Infant Skin Microbiome 131
• Part 3: Skin Microbiome in Disequilibrium and Disease 143
7 Microbiome of Compromised Skin 145
8 Human Cutaneous Ectoparasites: A Brief Overview and Potential Therapeutic Role for Demodex 171
9 Dysbiosis of the Skin Microbiome in Atopic Dermatitis 185
10 The Skin Microbiome of Inverse Psoriasis 203
• Part 4: Skin’s Innate Immunity 217
11 Effects of Endogenous Lipids on the Skin Microbiome 219
12 Innate Immunity in Epidermis 237
• Part 5: Testing and Study Design 261
13 Next Generation Sequencing Reveals the Skin Microbiome 263
14 Three-Dimensional Human Skin Models to Investigate Skin Innate and Immune-Mediated Responses to Microorganisms 277
15 Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) In-Vivo Reduction Assay: A Pre-Clinical Pharmacodynamic Assay for Evaluating Antimicrobial/Antibiotic Agents in Development for Acne Treatment 289
• Part 6: Regulatory and Legal Aspects for Skin Microbiome Related Products 303
16 Intellectual Property Tools for Protecting, Developing and Growing a Skin Microbiome Brand 305
17 Regulatory Aspects of Probiotics and Other Microbial Products Intended for Skin Care: The European Approach 321
18 Regulation of Probiotic and Other Live Biologic Products: The United States Approach 343
19 A Future Research Perspective Is There a Connection Between Sun Exposure, Microbiome and Skin Cancer? 377
The idea to compile and edit the book is the result of over a decade of work by the editor, Dr. Nava Dayan, on various projects related to skin barrier, innate immunity, microbiome, developing products, testing methods and paths of products to the market, both for pharmaceutical and the cosmetic industries.
The book is a summary of current status of knowledge, research tools and approaches in skin microbiome, in health and disease. It contains the following categories: healthy skin microbiome and oral-skin interaction, skin microbiome observational research, skin microbiome in disequilibrium and disease, skin’s innate immunity, testing and study design, regulatory and legal aspects for skin microbiome related products.
The 18 chapters of the book are written by carefully selected leaders in the academia, industry exhibiting extensive experience and understanding in the areas of interest.
Nava Dayan Ph.D. Pharm D. is a research scientist who has specialized in skin product development for nearly 3 decades. She is the owner of Dr. Nava Dayan L.L.C, a skin science and research consultancy serving the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and personal care industries; dermal and transdermal. The uniqueness of Dr. Dayan's approach is in its comprehensiveness since she covers biology, physics, efficacy, toxicology, formulations product development, and bio-availability. With her many years of experience in the skin care sector, she has produced more than 150 publication credits in numerous industry-respected journals and in four books. Her research focus is on feasibility in skin care, composition of R&D plans covering efficacy and toxicology; planning, execution and data interpretation into claims, formulations, delivery for improved efficacy and attenuated toxicity, drug-skin interaction, bio-markers, skin/age related sensitivities, inflammatory skin disorders, innate immunity and skin microbiome. This is her fifth book and her 2nd with the Wiley-Scrivener imprint.